Breeding of flower and ornamental plants

PostBreeding of flower plants

In ornamentals, there is always a quest for the development of new cultivars. Since, in flowers a specimen can’t be seen for a longer duration and people have desire for the development of newer forms, colours and types of flowers. During evolution, the biodiversity has arisen on account of mutation, recombination and natural selection, which resulted in several variations in flowers. Most of these changes have been brought about by the efforts of professionals and enthusiastic amateurs most often as a result of close observations followed by selection.

Also read: Cut Flowers Multiple Choice Questions

Objectives of breeding of flower plants

  • Improvement in floral quality.
  • High floral yield.
  • Resistance to insect-pests.
  • Adaption to climate.
  • Longer flowering duration.
  • Early flowering.
  • Development of fragrant cultivars.

Breeding tools to develop cultivars

  • Somaclonal hybridization
  • Somatic embryogenesis
  • Somaclonal variations
  • Transformation
  • DNA recombinants
  • Transgenics

Different methods of breeding ornamentals

  • Introduction
  • Selection: Mass and single plant selection
  • Bud sports
  • Mutation
  • Polyploidy
  • Hybridization: Single plant selection, back cross and recurrent
  • Heterosis breeding
  • Biotechnological tools

Also read: Chromosome (2n) Numbers of Different Flower Plants

Important plants native to India

Aster, barleria, bauhinia, begonia, crinum, gardenia, hedychium, impatiens, ipomoea, iris, ixora, jasminum, lilium, lonicera, orchids, pandanus, rhododenron, tabernaemontana, thunbergia.

Plant chimera

Cells of more than one genotype are found growing adjacent in the meristem, organ or tissues of that plant and its basic concept develops from variegated plants.
Bizzaria orange is the earliest graft plant chimera which arose after grafting scion of sour orange onto a seedling of cintron.

A cyto-chimera is a chimera with different ploidy levels in the apical cell layers. Periclinal chimeras are most stable, while mericlinal chimeras are unstable.

Origin of plant chimera

  • Spontaneous mutation
  • Induced mutation
  • Sorting out from variegated plants
  • Mixed callus culture
  • Protoplast fusion

Important institutions working on breeding of flower and ornamental crops

  • IARI, New Delhi
  • NBRI, Lucknow
  • IIHR, Bangalore
  • NBPGR, New Delhi
  • TNAU, Coimbatore
  • PAU, Ludhiana
  • BCKVV, Kalyani
  • UAS, Bangalore
  • IHBT, Palampur
  • BSI, Kolkata
  • BARC, Mumbai
  • The Agri-horticultural Society of India
  • Regional Plant Resource Centre, Bhubaneshwar
  • Lalbagh Garden, Bangalore
  • Horticultural Experiments and Training Centre Chaubatia, Ranikhet


Important rose breeders in India

  • BP Pal
  • BK Roy Chowdhury
  • BS Bhattacharjee
  • MS Viraraghvan
  • Braham Dutt
  • MN Hardikar
  • PL Airun
  • Arpi Thakur
  • JP Agarwal
  • YK Hande
  • S Benerjee
  • SC Dey
  • RS Malik
  • Vishnu Swarup
  • Brijendra Singh
  • AP Singh
  • US Kaicker

Objectives of rose breeding

  • Vigorous roses
  • Free blooming
  • Striking colours
  • Strong fragrance
  • Resistance to biotic and abiotic factors

Breeding methods in rose

  • Seedling selection
  • Hybridization
  • Mutation
  • Polyploidy

Leading institutions in rose breeding

  • IARI, New Delhi
  • NBRI, Lucknow
  • Private nurseries
  • Amateur gardeners


Breeding methods in bougainvillea

  • Seedling selection
  • Hybridization
  • Bud sports
  • Mutation

Leading institutes

  • IARI, New Delhi
  • NBRI, Lucknow
  • Private nurseries
  • Amateur gardeners

Important boigainvillea breeders in India

  • TN Khoshoo
  • SN Zadoo
  • D Ohri
  • BP Pal

Important hybrid cultivars

  • Mary Palmer Special
  • Begum Sikandar
  • Chitra
  • Wazid Ali Shah

Important mutated cultivars

  • Shweta
  • Shubhra
  • Parthasarthy
  • Surekha
  • Nirmal
  • Hawaiian Beauty
  • Archana


Important breeding methods

  • Introduction
  • Mutation
  • Hybridization

Important chrysanthemum breeders

  • MA Kher
  • SK Datta
  • MN Gupta

Important breeding institutes

  • NBRI, Lucknow
  • IIHR, Bangalore
  • PAU, Ludhiana
  • TNAU, Coimbatore
  • Private nurseries
  • Amateur gardeners

Jasmine, hibiscus, gladioulus, marigold, dahlia, and orchids

Important jasmine breeders in India

  • HC Srivastava
  • S Muthuswamy
  • Bhupal Rao
  • Madhava Rao

Important hibiscus breeders India

  • RN Bhat
  • M Virupaksha

Leading institutions in breeding gladiolus

  • NBRI, Lucknow
  • IIHR, Bangalore
  • PAU, Ludhiana
  • IHBT, Palampur

Important marigold breeders in India

  • SPS Raghava
  • Vishnu Swarup

Important dahlia breeders in India

  • Swami Vinayananda
  • PK Das
  • AK Dey

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