Definition, basic features, objectives, principles and philosophy of extension education

List of contents
01. Definition
02. Features
03. Objectives
04. Principles
05. Philosophy

Also read: Multiple Choice Questions On Agricultural Extension

01. Definition of extension education

Extension education is an applied behavioural science which brings desirable changes through various strategies by the application of the latest scientific and technological innovations.

02. Features of extension education

  • Participation is entirely voluntary.
  • It is a type of informal education.
  • Practical things come before theoretical aspects.
  • There is no defined course of study.
  • Here farmers study the problem.
  • Farmers has authority.
  • In this bidirectional learning process, teacher also learn from the farmers during the course of teaching.
  • It is flexible.
  • Local leaders are also involved in learning process.
  • Teaching is horizontal.
  • Freedom to develop programme locally.
  • Learning is based on the interest and desire of learners.
  • It is continuous education throughout the life.

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03. Objectives of extension education

The two dimensions of movement are as follows:

Fundamental objective: The fundamental objective is the development of the people.

In our country there are three main objectives of agricultural extension

  • Dissemination of useful and practical information.
  • Practical application of useful and important knowledge.
  • To improve all aspects of the life of the rural people.

Who coined the word ‘Learning by Doing’?

John Dewey coined the word ‘Learning by Doing’ in 1966.

04. Principles of extension education

Principle of interest and need

  • It is totally based on the interests and needs of the people.
  • Extension programmes are prepared based on the need of the people.

Principle of cultural difference

  • It is based on the cultural background of the people.
  • Various ways are included to educate the people.

Principle of adaptability

  • It should be adaptable to any one.
  • Flexibility is the most important thing.

Grassroot principle of organisation

  • A programme should fit in with local conditions so that more and more people would participate.

Principle of leadership

  • Programme is based on full utilisation of local leadership. The participation of local leaders make it more effective.

Principle of whole family

  • This programme is useful for all the members.
  • It is useful for male, female and youth of the family.

Principle of cooperation

  • Rural people cooperate with their village, block and state officials to pursue a common cause.

Principle bof satisfaction

  • This is key to get success in extension education.
  • A satisfied customer is an example of the best advertisement.

Principle of evaluation

  • Analytical study is necessary to know the merits and demerits of the programme. Hence, the constant evaluation is necessary.

05. Basic philosophy

Self help: People have to help each other, and one has to help himself.

Resources: People are the greatest resources.

Change: Change in programme is desirable.

Effort: It should be cooperative.

Democratic nature: Development of people by the people for the people.

The two channels of knowledge and experience are as follows:

ProblemsProblems are brought to laboratory.
SolutionsSolutions are taken to farmers or villagers.

Interest: Programme is based on creating interest by seeing and doing.

Participation: It is voluntarily and cooperative.

Persuasion and education of people.

Process: This process is never ending.

Definition, features, objectives, principles and philosophy of extension

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