Mango Cultivation Practice

In this post we will know about some important points about mango cultivation.

Mango is the national fruit of India.

Botanical nameMangifera indica
Chromosome number40
Fruit typedrupe
Edible portionMesocarp

Also read: Multiple Choice Questions On Pomology

  • It is a rich source of Vitamin A and C.
  • Kernel contains 8-10 % fat.
  • Export products: Chutneys, pickles, juice, nectar and slice.
  • It can grow to an altitude of 1500 m from MSL.


  • Soil pH: 6-7.5.
  • Best time for planting: Rainy season.
  • Spacing for commercial cultivation: 10 × 10 m.
  • Spacing for hybrids (Amrapalli): 2.5 × 2.5 m.
  • Pit size: 1 × 1 × 1 m.
  • Per pit manure: 20-25 Kg FYM, 2.4 Kg SSP and 1 mg MOP.
  • 2/3rd portion of the top should be filled with FYM and soil in ratio of 1:3.

Training and pruning

  • Training of plant in initial stage is very important to give proper shape.
  • Branching is allowed after 75 cm of height.
  • 75 cm of main stem should be free from branching.

Also read: Pomology (Mango): Questions and Answers

The main branch should be grown in different directions and are at least 20-25 cm apart.
In mango trees, if flower appears up to four years, it should be removed to get quality fruits i.e. do not allow any flowering in initial (first) four years. Pruning can be considerably done in dwarf mango trees.

Flowering and fruiting

  • Grafted plants start fruiting after 5th yr. of planting.
  • Fruits mature in 90-100 days after flowering.
  • A ten year old grafted trees yield: 400-500 fruits.
  • For 20-40 years old grafted trees it produce 1500-3000 fruits every year.


  • Temperature Between 24-27 °C is ideal for mango cultivation.
  • Storage temperature for Mature fruits: 6- 7 °C.
  • Storage temperature for ripe fruits: 20 °C.


  • Harvesting period of mango March to Mid August.
  • 8 tones/ha


For North India: Bombay Green, Langra, Dasheri and Chausa.

For South India: Baiganpalli, Neelum, Banglora, Rumani, Badami, Raspuri and

For East India: Krishnbhog, Himsagar, GulabKhas and Fazli.

For West India: Alphanso, Pairi, Kesar, Rajapuri and Mankurad.

Early varieties: Bombay green, Himsagar, Kesar and Swarnarekha, Bombai
,Ratna , Pairi , Banganpalli

Mid Season: Dasheri, Langra, jardalo, KrishnaBhog, Alphanso, Bangalora , Mallika, Mankurad.

Late variety: Amrapalli, Arka Anmol, Arka Neelkiran, Chausa, Neelum, Fazli and Mulgoa.

Regular bearing variety: Banganpalli, Bnagalora, Totapuri, Neelum, Himsagar, Gulabkhas and Pairi

For HDP/HDO: Amrapalli.

Most important sucking variety: Chinaraasum, Lucknow safed, Gilas.
Polyembyonic varieties: Bellary, Bappkal, Chandrakran, Kurukkan, Starch, and Neeleshwar dwarf.

Some important mango varieties with characteristics (in India)


  • Mainly grown in Ratangiri of Maharastra.
  • Fruits are of medium size (250 g).
  • Fibreless with excellent orange colour.
  • Susceptible to spongy tissue.
  • Baiganpalli.
  • Widely cultivated in South India (A. P.).

Early maturing variety

Fruits are large sized (350-400ng)

Bombay green

Early variety

Grown in North India.
Fruits: Medium Size (250 g) Chausa

Late maturing variety

  • Grown in North. India.
  • Fruits large size (350 g)
  • Fruit colour: bright yellow.

It is shy bearing.


  • Most popular variety of North India.
  • Fruits medium size (200-250 g)
  • Pulp: fibreless.
  • Stone is thin and keeping quality good.
  • Fazli
  • Originated from Bihar and W. Bengal.
  • Late maturing variety.
  • Fruits are large 400-450 g.
  • Flavour pleasant.
  • Pulp: fibreless and sweet.
  • Keeping quality is good Langra
  • Important commercial variety of North India.
  • Bearing habit: Biennial bearer.
  • Mid season variety.
  • Colour: lemon yellow.
  • Keeping quality is medium. Neelum
  • Late season mango variety.
  • Grown in South India.
  • Bearing habit: regular.
  • Fruits size: Medium size (250 – 300 gm.) Pulp: fleshy, soft, yellow and fibreless.
  • Keeping quality good. Gulabkhas
  • Origin: Bihar

B.H.: regular and heavy bearer.

  • F. S.: Small to medium size (100-200 g)
  • Flavour: Rosy flavour.
  • Fruits colour: yellow with reddish colour.
  • Keeping quality good.


  • Widely grown in South India.
  • Bearing habit: regular and heavy bearing. • Fruit size: medium to large (300 – 350 gm) Fruit quality: medium.
  • Flavour: flat taste.
  • Flesh/pulp:fibreless.


  • Most popular variety in W. Bengal.
  • Bearing habit: regular.
  • Fruits: medium size (250 – 30 gm).
  • Pulp: fibreless, firm.
  • Flavour: pleasant.
  • Keeping quality: good.


  • Popular variety of Gujarat.
  • Bearing habit: irregular.
  • Fruit size: medium (250 gm)
  • Pulp: sweet and fibreless.
  • Fruit colour: Apricot yellow colour.
  • It has good processing quality.


  • Origin: W. Bengal.
  • Fruit size: medium to large (350 – 400 gm.)
  • Flavour: pleasant.
  • Keeping quality good.
  • Pulp: few fibres, firm.
  • Variety with specific characteristics
  • Alphanso: popular variety of India, susceptible to spongy tissue and has good export quality.
  • Banganpalli: main commercial variety of A.P.
  • Chausa: Sweetest variety of Mango.
  • Langra: it has characteristics terpentine flavour and most prone to fruit drop.
  • Niranjan: off season variety.
  • Neelum: ideal for long distance transport and has two crops in year.
  • Rosica: mutant variety of mango.
  • Madhulika: most precious cultivar.
  • Lal Sinduri’ powdery mildew resistant variety.
  • Exotic coloured cultivar: Tommy Atkins, Zilette, Haden, Sensation, Julie,.
  • Mulgoa: mother of all coloured variety.
  • Bombay green: highest Vit C content.
  • Salt resistant polyembryonic root stock- Kurrukan.
  • Salt resistant root stock: Moovandan and Nekkare.
  • Apple shape variety: GulabKhas, Himsagar, Kishan Bhog, Rumani, Bangalora, Tota puri, Mankurad.

Hybrid variety of Mango


Dasheri × Neelum

Suitable for high density planting


Neelum × Dashehari
Regular bearer and highest Vitamin A content.

Neelum × Alphanso

Regular bearer and free from spongy tissue.

Fibre pulp %: 78-62 %.

Sindhu In 1981 are developed at regional fruit research station, Vengurla.

Ratna × Alphanso

Seedless variety of mango.
Stone account 3 % of total fruit weight.
Stone weight: 6.75 g,
Pulp83 %.
Pulp to stone ratio: 26: 1.
Result from stenospermocarpic parthenocarpic.

Arka Punit It is developed at regional fruit research station Vengurla.

Alphaso × Baganpalli.
Free from spongy tissue.

Arka aruna Developed from IIHR, Bangalore.

Baganpalii × Alphanso

Dwarf variety
Free from spongue tissue.

Arka neelkiran Developed from IIHR, Bangalore.
Aplhanso × Neelum
Free from spongue tissue.

Manjeera Developed from IIHR, Bangalore.

Rumani × Neelum

Arka Rumani Developed of fruit research station, Sangareddy.

Rumani × Neelum

Arka Anmol

Alphanso × Janardhan pasand.


Neelum × Alphanso Neeleshan

Neelum × Baneshan


Neelum × Dasheri

Pollination & fertilization

  • Dasheri, Langra, Chausa and Bombay green are self incompatible mango cultivars.
  • While Dasheri is cross incompatible with Chausa.
  • Dasheri is cross compatible with Langra, Rataul and Bombay green.
  • Chousa is cross incompatible with Bombay green and Rataul and it is cross compatible with Langra and Safeda Malihabad.
  • Bombay green is the best pollinizers for Dasheri, Dasheri for – Chausa, Bombay green.
  • Bombay green variety of mango is highly susceptible to malformation.
  • Bhadauran, Illaichi and Alib are resistant to malformation.
  • Dasheri is more susceptible to internal necrosis than Lucknow safeda, Bombay green, Fazli, Chausa and Langra. Miscellaneous
  • It is eterozygous and cross pollinated crop.
  • Most widely practiced method of grafting for getting a big size plant material for planting and success % rate over 95 %
  • Inarching: For preparing grafted plant material for insitu grafting.
  • veneer grafting.
  • For inducing flowering: soil drenching with paclobutrazol (2ml/tree).
  • Nutritional requirement of mango varies with soil type, variety, age of plant and region.
  • The average NPK dose from first to ten years 73 g, 18 g and 68 g per tree per year.
  • Zinc deficiency can be rectified by applying ZnSO4 @ 0.3 %.
  • For rectifying Boron deficiency and for proper fruit setting: 5 % Borax spray.
  • Intercropping in mango is done with black gram, wheat, brinjal, onion, cowpea and berseem. (For Green manuring + preventing soil erosion.
  • Average productivity of mango in India – 8 Tonnes/ha.
  • For increasing shelf life (Storage life): low temperature storage, heat treatment, packaging, controls atmospheric storage.
  • Ideal temperature for storage: 5-16 °C.
  • Chilling injury (low temperature injury) results loss of flavour and heavy softening of pulp.
  • Under controlled atmospheric condition (i.e in storage), rate of respiration decreases which in turn delay softening.
  • Highest Vitamin C content: Bombay green.
  • Maturity indices: TSS 20 %.
  • Economic yield continues up to 40 years.

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