Rice cultivation important points

This page includes important points and description about rice cultivation. It is important for all agricultural competition exams.

Common nameRice or paddy
Scientific nameOryza sativa
OriginSouth-East Asia


Also read: Multiple Choice Questions on Agronomy


  • Aus or autumn
  • Aman or Kharif
  • Boro or summer

Aus or autumn

  • Aus is derived form Sanskrit.
  • Ashu means early.
  • Crop is sown in pre-monsoon.
  • Harvesting period is August-September.

Aman or Kharif

  • Aman is derived from Arabic word.
  • It means safety.
  • Harvesting period is winter season.

Boro or summer

  • Crop is grown in low land submerged conditions.
  • Growing period is January-February.
  • Harvesting period April-May.

Varietal type of Oryza sativa

  • Indica rice
  • Japonica rice
  • Javanica rice

Indica rice

  • It is tropical.
  • Awnless or short awn.
  • Maturity is late.
  • Stem is long.
  • It is grown in India.

Japonica rice

  • It is sub-tropical or temperate.
  • Maturity is early.
  • Stem is short.
  • It is very responsive to N fertilizers.
  • There is no lodging.
  • It is grown in Japan.

Javanica rice

  • It is the wild form of rice.
  • It is grown in Indonesia.

Important one liner

  • Inflorescence is known as Panicle.
  • Hull consists of lemma and palea.
  • Test weight is 25g.
  • Rice is self pollinated crop.
  • It is short day plant.
  • Cardinal temperature is 30-32°C.
  • Hulling percentage is 70-75%.


  1. TN-1
  2. IR-8
  3. Jaya
  4. Padma
  5. Jagannath
  6. CR-1014
  7. Pusa Basmati-1
  • TN-1 was developed in Taiwan.
  • TN-1 is a cross between Dee-geo-woo-gen × Tasai Yung Chung.
  • Dee-geo-woo-gen is dwarf and N responsive.
  • Tasai Yung Chung is tall and drought resistance.
  • Dr. T.T. Chang introduced TN-1, Dee-geo-woo-gen, and I-geo-tze in India.
  • IR-8 was developed by Henry M. Beachell.
  • It is a cross between Dee-geo-woo-gen and Peta.
  • It was introduced in India in 1966.
  • Jaya was developed by Dr. Shastry.
  • It is a cross between T.N.-1 and T-141.
  • T-141 is an Indian variety.
  • It outyielded TN-1 and IR-8.
  • Hence it is known as miracle rice.
  • Padma is the reverse cross result of the parent jaya.
  • Jagannath is mutant of T-141.
  • CR-1014 is a cross between T-90 and Urang Urangan.
  • Pusa Basmati-1 has been developed by IARI through conversion breeding.
  • Jaisuria, jaladhi, madhukar, jalamagan, etc., are deep water varieties.
  • Sabarmati, Basmati, Kasturi, etc., are aromatic varieties.

Also read: Multiple Choice Questions on Agriculture

Methods of cultivation

  • Lehi method
  • Byasi method
  • Transplanting method
  • SRI method

Lehi method

  • High rainfall area.
  • Pre germination of seeds.
  • Pudding of paddy field.
  • 20-25% increase in overall yield.

Byasi method

  • To reduce the plant density.
  • Byasi is done after 30-35 days.

Transplanting method

  • It is known as ropayi.
  • Plant nursery is prepared before transplanting.


  • It is invented in 1983 by the French Jesuit Father Henri de Laulanie in Madagascar.
  • Plant to plant and row to row distance is 25 cm.

Dry method

  • Nursery area is 800 square meter.
  • Optimum age for transplanting is 4th leaf stage.

Seed rate

  • Short duration: 60 kg.
  • Long duration: 30 kg.
  • Hybrid: 20 kg.

Zinc deficiency is a major problem in intensively cultivated and saline-sodic soil. The cause of khaira disease is Zinc deficiency. Iron toxicity is a major problem in highly acidic soil. Phalguna variety has some tolerance against to iron toxicity.

Rice cultivation important points.

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